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A Key to Ancient Names Worldwide

by Dr John J White, III

About John White            Would you like to contact the author about this article? Yes


This article introduces an elementary Earth Mother Sacred Language (EMSL) model that attempts to support the thesis that many of the ancient names found worldwide with great similarities can be explained as strings of God-related names. This approach to ancient names has a passing similarity to an exceptionally innovative book The Key by John Philip Cohane,1 however both its genesis and its structure are unrelated. The author is a physicist, not a linguist, and the interesting characteristics of EMSL were the result of some shockingly simple discoveries from some minor linguistic inquiries. The whole idea is surely incorrect, but it satisfies The Rule! The Rule of the Venerable Ockam (nature is never frivolously complex) big time, and I currently have no sense of where its disastrous weaknesses occur. If I wasn't experiencing a similar success with the recognition of Earth Mother Culture Religious Symbols,2-6 I think I would have withheld publication of this paper.

     EMSL is quite simple and thus scientifically satisfying.

"Why would our ancient ancestors have used a complicated language for naming important items in a world that did not necessarily have a large number of explainable complications?".

The syllabary for the EMSL is given in Table I. It consists of roughly 13 basic mono-syllables that are nouns or definite articles and less than 10 rules for how to break a name down into the original ancient mono-syllables. There are, of course, many distortions in the ancient names as we know them. The art of recognizing the possibilities is not too difficult with EMSL, but there is little basis for choosing among the alternatives in certain cases. EMSL is quite simple and thus scientifically satisfying. EMSL addresses the rhetorical question "Why would our ancient ancestors have used a complicated language for naming important items in a world that did not necessarily have a large number of explainable complications?".

     The EMSL opponents have been ugly and vicious with their denouncements. They argue that something else, linguistically speaking, is far more correct, that the study of EMSL is some sort of intellectual crime, and that only they understand the nature of ancient languages.

EMSL is a new, controversial research subject, even though it is offered only as a scientific model. Its supporters are impressed by the low number of failures of EMSL to make sense of ancient names and by the large number of connections it can make with Earth Mother Culture (EMC) related issues. The EMSL opponents have been ugly and vicious with their denouncements. They argue that something else, linguistically speaking, is far more correct, that the study of EMSL is some sort of intellectual crime, and that only they understand the nature of ancient languages. Not too surprisingly, they haven't had much success selling their ideas or publications to others. These bullies don't have to use EMSL as a research tool for prehistory if they don't want to! Realistically, EMSL is intended for unbashed old names, evaluations of which are very difficult to make.

The premise for appreciating the EMSL is approximated by the following model of ancient prehistory. The Earth Mother Culture is considered to be the primary culture of mankind back perhaps to 50,000 BP and reaching full formulation by circa 10,000 BCE. Symbolic representation of EMC is suggested as far back as 8000 BCE.7 This date is not an issue at this point, but we do mean to suggest that verbal EMSL had its origins prior to the origins of rudimentary writing, and possibly it served as an inspiration for early writing methods and symbols.

We are inclined to use the expression pre-Iron Age for EMSL, because we cannot presently recognize any sharp transitions in mankind's cultural growth forcing EMSL's development, that is, we think EMSL "evolved" long ago and that experts called Shamen have used it for at least 12 millennia. Our predilection for explaining the nearly worldwide usage of these names is a slow cultural diffusion mechanism in which the more developed cultures identify new ideas and spread them around through direct contact with near and distant neighbors.

     What I call EMSL had its origins in the Earth Mother Culture, the primary culture of mankind, and was prior to the origins of rudimentary writing, possibly serving as an inspiration for early writing methods and symbols.

We visualize EMSL as a basic tool and secret of the Shaman class within each tribal grouping. They would have had verbal training in EMSL and may have had total responsibility for the naming of all important objects, such as clans, continents, countries, deserts, lakes, mountains, oceans, people, regions, rivers, swamps, territories, tribes, valleys, etc. This would have been a major social power and responsibility that they would have been surrendered quite grudgingly. Thus we are not likely to suggest that many American Indians bore serious secular names, such as the humorous "two mating dogs".

The persistence and wide distribution of EMSL names suggests the possibility that Shamen used this system of naming down to recent times, despite the fact that their tribes may have adopted or developed a greatly different everyday polysyllabic spoken language. Hebrew is a modern version of such a sacred language. The Catholic Church system of naming children after Saints clearly reflects the ancient tradition of using the sacred names of a culture whenever feasible.

There is a major drawback to religious naming that will soon be apparent. Religious naming is quite egalitarian unless the recipient's representative values length over brevity. This problem is equivalent to asking what cultural (tribal) ties exist among the various people of this era who are named "Dick" or "Jane".

EMSL names consist entirely of nouns and definite articles. Names that describe the recipient, such as "Richard, the Lionhearted", could be insightful, if accurate. Such is not the case with EMSL, and this attribute has the additional consequence of providing racists and tribal ethnologists with little to work with. For example, there may be 100 or more examples available of the name GE-TE and its logical variations, but virtually no evidence exists to support a claim that many of them are closely related.

A simple joy does occur occasionally when working with applications of EMSL. The word-segment order of EMSL is of little consequence, and when this characteristic is combined with the phonetic alternatives used (allowed) we discover that some historically related names have identical content.8 For example, the reader is probably not sensitive to the issue that the names TY-RE and RA-ZA both mean "The Earth" in EMSL.

     We visualize EMSL as a basic tool and secret of the Shaman class within each tribal grouping. They would have had verbal training in EMSL and may have had total responsibility for the naming of all important objects, such as clans, continents, countries, deserts, lakes, mountains, oceans, people, regions, rivers, swamps, and so on

One final warning for sophisticated scholars before we launch into our version of simplistic linguistics. I will frequently include modern names among my examples of how EMSL words may have been used to construct ancient names. In such cases, I make no assertion that the particular name is verified to be ancient. There is an implication, however, that most names are old if we do not know for a fact that they are new. Opinions do not count in this matter! The EMSL model is dependent on the notion that ancient names had verbal origins with specific religious content and that the Shaman class made reasonably consistent consonantal transfers down through the ages. What possible cultural inferences in language can we hope to obtain without exploring this type of possibility from time to time? If EMSL is found wanting, then surely some other similar set of assumptions will be more satisfactory.


EMSL is an abbreviation of the name Earth Mother Sacred Language. It is a scientific model for an ancient monosyllabic naming language, meaning that each syllable of a compound name is a word or idea in itself. The name EMSL was selected because the Gods referred to are logically related to our current perception of the Earth Mother Religion and Culture.5 We find that ancient names plausibly based on this naming system occur worldwide.

In general terms, the Earth Mother Religion can be called a Nature Religion, meaning that the Deity is an all knowing presence existing in the Earth, its plants, animals, and waters, and the nearby sky. The Female or Mother Principle was emphasized initially due to the Earth's capability to generate living organisms and thus food and materials for mankind. We have encountered many strange and varied interpretations of the Earth Mother Religion, but in simple terms we are confident that the vast majority can be fit under a single religious umbrella.

It is difficult to infer if this religion was monotheistic with many aspects of the Deity recognized or Polytheistic as we may learn from the diverse interpretations of the ancient literature. Our ancestors may not have been very concerned with this distinction. Their reliance on abstract symbols,5 as opposed to idols, suggests a sophisticated viewpoint of the presence of great physical and biological mystery and a notion that the god(s) manifests in many mysterious ways and aspects.

The Occurrence of Definite Articles

     The identification of the definite article content of ancient names is the linchpin of EMSL. Our original interest 2 was focussed on the possible Earth or Serpent meanings of various Aegean Sea region names having a T-R spelling, such as Tyre, terra, Thera, Troy, Troas, and tyranny.

Most readers will recognize the repeated use of the words Ge and Gea in ancient names, and a few experts on the culture of ancient India will no doubt understand that the word Naga or serpent has a place in this discussion. Most of the other concepts of EMSL are confused by phonetic variations and the presence of numerous definite articles that have little specific content. Our view is that the Shamen of the EMC liked the sound quality of certain names and could use definite articles to achieve a greater number of satisfactory sounding names. The identification of the definite article content of ancient names is the linchpin of EMSL. If we have misjudged this issue, then all is lost. Please refer to Rule 4A of Table I.

The notion that a simple EMSL model was feasible did not occur until some perception of the De#, Te#, and Th# forms of the definite article were solidified (# is any vowel, which is often contracted, that is, missing). Our original interest2 was focussed on the possible Earth or Serpent meanings of various Aegean Sea region names having a T-R spelling, such as Tyre, terra, Thera, Troy, Troas, and tyranny. We also found the mystery of the origin of the ancient goddess Tanith rather puzzling.

It took us a couple of years to realize that T had little meaning in this context and that the R refers to the "Earth" (remember the Goddess Rhea) unless it is a superficial suffix. The names "Anat" and "Anatolia" suggested that the T in "Tanith" was superficial. This idea threw suspicion on the possible prefixes of the words "terra" and "Thera", due to the occurrence of the words "Hera", "Heracles", "Iran", and "Ere/Ire" (Ireland). Some related studies emphasized the importance of this underlying issue.2,6 EMSL would be easier to construct if you started with the nouns (god-names) first, but unfortunately some of them were not known initially or perhaps remain unknown today.

The definite article problem came into focus9,10 when I read a comment that definite articles could occur as suffixes in old Albanian words. I had puzzled over the words "Gede" and "Gades" on the one hand and the deity series "Dea", "Dei", "Dios", and "Theos" on the other. An important recognition was the possibility that the German word for Earth "Erde" could be rendered as E-RE-DE, while the English word "Earth" would be EA-RE-THE.

     The first discovered candidate rule of EMSL was thus that ancient names may contain imbedded definite articles of the D#, T#, and Th# variety with # = a, e, and i frequent and # = o, u, and y less frequent.

The first discovered candidate rule of EMSL was thus that ancient names may contain imbedded definite articles of the D#, T#, and Th# variety with # = a, e, and i frequent and # = o, u, and y less frequent. This linguistic finding has largely been forgotten or ignored, and it translates a great many syllables, perhaps 20-25%. The The word, common to Greek, is the definite article in English, and the connection is seldom mentioned. I have assumed that I am a linguistic "pagani" competing with trained experts, but this sort of finding, if correct, makes you wonder if physics is not the superior training ground.

The definite article rule is elementary to apply. Just look at the underlined portions of the names Agade, Attica, Azteca, Caledoni, Dene, Erde, Galatia, Gede, Gitani, Goth(e), India, Italy, Ithaca, Kelti, Latini, Nakota, Oneida, Texas, Thera, and Ute. Similarly, you can hear this ancient name construction in modern English words like father (fathe/fade) and mother (mathe/made).9

Now the mind wanders all over once a new candidate rule is uncovered. Eventually, one discovers other definite articles, particularly the S# and Z# sounds. We eventually recognized a number of two-consonant combinations that are indicative of a definite article, particularly St#, Sz#, Ts#, Tz#, and Zd#. Some examples are Belize, Gaza, Kharazi, Parsi, Pakistani, Raza, Rusini (Russians), Saka, Seminole, Seneca, Staley, Stanley, Syria (Sura), Szabo, Tsavo, Tzech(a), Zapoteca and Zdenek. Thus armed with a tool for isolating the key noun words, we made a progressive series of assignments to see how many new translations agreed with the logic of the name contexts.

Interpretation of the Isolated Vowels "a/e/i/u"

One of the most important words available to EMSL is the ancient Celtic word Dea, which is widely attested to mean "(the) god". The a is an isolated vowel-syllable in this case. This word-type is echoed in the words Dei, Dios, and Theos from the Latin, Spanish, and Greek languages, respectively. If De means "the", then we have the finding that the isolated vowels a, e, i, and u could be translated as "god" in EMSL. This is the essence of Rule 1A of Table I.

The position of a/e/i/u syllables within a name does not appear to change the meaning. The a/u usage shifts with time toward apparent Sky God names, whose special meaning will be discussed separately, however the isolated vowel-word o has a unique meaning in EMSL unrelated to "god". EMSL cannot, of course, account for many of the newer prefixes and suffixes added to ancient names by various modern language formulations. It does surprisingly well with patrinyms and matrinyms.

The isolated vowel occurs in many familiar ancient names. Some examples are Aegean, Africa, America, Apache, Arawak, Athapaskan, Azores, Ebla, Erie, Etruri, Etruscan, Iberia, Ierne, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ithaca, Teya, Ugarit, Ute, Utica, and Yuchi. We pass over these isolated vowels everyday with no thought of a simple interpretation. Perhaps the reader will attempt a translation of the name Ata in the title "Ata Turk" or a translation of the name Aga in the title "Aga Khan". The most common occurrence of a is in the suffix forms Gea, Kia, Mia, and R(h)ea, which may have led to the use of the feminine ending -a in some modern Indo-European languages.

Irish/Celtic/British names offer a surprising number of examples of EMSL related words. Consider the underlined portions of the names McAda, McAdoo, McAtee, Edi, Ida, Ith, and O'Day (O'Dea). Except for the familiar prefixes "Mc" and "O'", EMSL translates these names as the-god. The isolated vowel occurs in longer names, but we will postpone such translations to avoid issues related to what might be called circular arguments. Discovery itself is often a matter of trial and error, and the circular argument issues have to be straightened out by each individual researcher.

       Heres A Taste of EMSL Translation:

The Greek city of "Athens" is rendered by EMSL as A-THE-NE, which translates as god-the-people or after rearrangement the-people-of-god. The Greek Goddess "Athena" would be rendered as A-THE-NA, which translates as god-the-consort-of or the-consort-of-god.

But let us pause for a simple taste of EMSL translation in the Old World context. The name of the Greek city of "Athens" is rendered by EMSL as A-THE-NE, which translates as god-the-people or after rearrangement the-people-of-god. The name of the Greek Goddess "Athena" would be rendered as A-THE-NA, which translates as god-the-consort-of or the-consort-of-god. We have jumped ahead to Rule 5 of Table I for the use of the special words "Ni" and "Na". Now the point of this discussion is to identify A-THE as a male god of Athens and the consort of Athena. This god is familiar to us as the Greek word "Æther", a name that fits reasonably well with EMC names. Thus we may conclude that "Dea" = "Æthe(r)", broadly speaking.

An important application exists in Arabic/Muslim Culture where the god-word is the two-syllable Allah. If the original breakdown was Al-a(h), where Al is the Arabic word for "the", then we have the result that Allah means The God in English, which is the expected finding. If the correct breakdown is Al-la(h) or Al-i-la(h), as suggested by an Oxford Dictionary,11 then the translation is The-Sun or The-Sun-God. The EMSL interpretation of the word La is discussed below. We propose that EMSL analyses could have a role in removing some of the sloppiness from older linguistic interpretations.

The God Names of EMSL

The meaning of an EMSL name is associated primarily with the combination of God names present, including duplications. The order of words, the number and sound of the definite articles, and the decision to include or exclude isolated vowels appears to be secondary. The great variation in the names given for the nomadic Gypsies of Europe supports this view.8

We have no reason to think that all of the elementary ancient God and Goddess names of EMC have been identified in this paper. Many of the basic concepts are probably known, but isolated cultures may have developed a unique god-name. Goddess culture was probably less fragmented and hence easier for the EMSL research analyzes to detect. A major problem throughout history has been local society's challenge to properly deal with the ever increasing power of kings/leaders and the search for more politically effective male gods as world population and competition for land and control increased

The Word "Ge" for the female Earth-goddess

The principal Earth Goddess names appear to be Ge, Ra, Ma, and possibly Wa/Va. The Gea/Gaea word is well known, and it is the most common EMSL word if all of the phonetic variations are allowed. We hear the "Ge" sound daily in words, such as geodesy, geography, geology, and genealogy, and the Ge-sound is likely the root for the words "God/Goddess".9

The current low interest in ancient languages allows us, for example, to ignore the "ka" of the Iranian tribal name "Saka" (The Earth), and thus there is little sensitivity to the possibility that the frequent "-ska/ski" ending of many Slavic names could be a contracted tribal-matrinym (Ska = Saka) honoring the Earth Goddess "Ka/Ga". Go ahead and laugh! But any scientist familiar with Ockam's Razor is going to demand that you explain the second best argument for a "-ska/ski" interpretation.

The G-sound has more phonetic variations than any other consonant. While it is likely a common argument among linguists, the reader will be surprised to see under Rule 2A of Table I that EMSL finds that the letter-sounds Ch, G, K, J, Q, Sh, and often C, H, X are members of the G-family of sounds and are rendered as G# or "Ge" in EMSL translations. In a technical sense, our ability to deal with ancient languages and literatures depends, in part, on our skill in dealing with this G# phonetic issue.

Typical so-called hard C#-names are Africa, Cale, Caria, Caribe, Catlin, Cellini, Clayton, Coe, Cole, Corinth, Corsica, Coyle, Croatia, deacon, leuco-, McCall, McClune, McCool, McCulloch, Nicole, and Resaca.

Typical Ch# names are Apache, Appalachi, Buchanan, Chad, Chandra, cheetah, Chelsea, Cheyne, Chile, child, China, Comanche, leche, Lucia, Manchu, McChesney, Michigan, Ochoe, ochre, Richard, Tzech, and Yuchi.

Typical G#-names are Algeria, Afghani, Belgae, Donaghy, Dragon, Gabon, Gael, Gaza, Gea, Gede, Geloni, Genesee, Germania, Ghent, Gretna, Guiness, Gulistan, Magee, McGill, Morgana, Ocmulgee, Olga, orgy, Phrygia, Prague, Riga, Sligo, Sogdian, and Teague.

Some of the H#-names that could contain a soft G#-word are von der Ahe, Donahue, Harold, Hawaii, Hayne, Hays, Henley, Henri, Hiawasee, Hiawatha, Hinton, maha, Mahaffey, Mahan, Mahoney, McHale, and Tallahasee.

Typical K#-names are Alaska, Kalida, Kama, Katz, Kazee, Keats, Kelly, Kelso, Kelti, Kenton, Kenya, Khan, Khotan, Killy, kilt, Korea, Krite, Kurd, Kyle, Kyprus, Leakey, McKale, McKenny, McKenzie, Mykenae, Pakistan, oak, Orkney, Sakhalin, Sikh, and Takhelne.

Some of the rare J#-names are James, Jane, Japan, Jason, Jats, Java, Jensen, Jordan, Ojibwa, and Raja.

Some of the rare Q#-names are Aquitaine, Iraq, Iroquois, Quadi, Queen, Quinda, Quinn, Quintana, Quito, Quiza, Tarquini, and Yaqui.

Some of the rare Sh#-names are Shah, Shan Sharif, Shelby, Sheldon, Sheila, Shelley, Shelta, Shelton, Shenandoah, Shenley, Sheriff, and Sherry. Irish names like Sean and Semus have the Sh# pronunciation.

Some of the rare X#-names that could contain a K(#)·S(T)#-word are Baxter, Braxton, Dixon, Hixon, Maxon, Mixon, Nixon, Paxon, Saxon, and Tixon.

One of the implications of EMSL is that there are many names with the same content, or, put another way, there are several ways to speak the same religious name. In this context we can have many more God-names than Gods.12 Similarly, we may have more Tribal-names than Tribes.13 We leave it to the reader to understand that namewise EMSL infers that Aquitane = Chatti = Cheney = Getae = Goths = Jats = McGuines(ta) = McKenney = Saxons= Saka = Scythians = Sogdians = Tuku = Tzechs. For extra credit the reader can determine if the name of the Danish tribe of Jutes is equivalent to any of the above.

The Word "Re" for the female Earth-goddess

We are not accustomed to the Re/Ra word, due largely to a highly different Sun-meaning in Egyptian Culture, but this is clearly the Greek Earth Goddess Rhea. The clues come in slowly but surely as one looks around, but our dictionaries are not quite in tune. We start with the names Terra/Thera/Tyre from the Greek world and the names Ere (Ireland)/Earth/Erde (Earth - German) from the English world. The above findings that "E" is a god-word and that "Te/The/Ty/De" is a definite article leaves no choice but that R# means "Earth (Goddess)". Note also that "Tir-" means land of- in Gaelic, as in Tirconnell.

We have no idea why our ancestors needed multiple Earth-Mother names except to say that isolated people probably invented different names and that only a few of these survived. A scholarly clue for R# comes from Eric Partridge,14 who tells us that "era" means earth in Greek. With just a little bit of thought, we can ask if the "H" in the Goddess name "Hera" is clearly meaningless? Let us claim then that linguistically HERA = RHEA. This being the case, we look at a corresponding Hebrew word for "land", namely eretz, and we can see that the EMSL translation is E-RE-TZ(E), meaning god-Earth-the or the-Earth-god. Is it possible that some of our sophisticated ancestors literally stole some paleo-linguistic words of the EMSL type and never admitted it? For shame!

Now if you swallowed your gum over this sort of analysis, don't fulminate and send me a letter calling me a slime ball. It has already happened! If all this simple stuff sounds really stupid to you, just write your own article or book and explain the essence of paleo-linguistics in your own words. If your linguistic model is a good one, you won't have to mention me even one time. Just do it!

Typical common R#-names are Dora, dragon, Erin, Irene, iron, Karen, Kiri, Lora, Martha, Mary, ore, orgy, Raisa, red, Reese, regal, Rene(e), Rhett, Rita, Roddy, Rodin, Rodney, rose, rota, ruby, Ruda, Rudy, Ruth, Sara(h), saurian, serpent, sierra, tundra, Vera, and Zarah.

Typical cultural R#-names are Africa, America, Arabia, Astarte, Britany, Druid, Erie, Etruri, Hathor, Iran, Iraq, Istar, Jordan, Nigeria, Persia, Raetia, Rex, Rhoads (Rodos), Rhine, Rhone, Rus, Ruthenian, Sardinia, Serbia, Siberia, Syria (Sura), Tara, Turainian, Tyre, Tzar, and Zaire.

These lists of names support the debunking of an obvious flaw in some modern historical interpretation, namely the assertion of some kind of white-racial superiority in the past in the form of an alleged Aryan race. Linguists have been quite reasonable about this assertion. The EMSL translation of "Aryan" is A-RY-NI, meaning god-Earth-people or Earth-god-people. It is the same name as that of the "Irani" people. If you look at all the ancient names with a "Ge", "Re", or "Ma" syllables, it appears that a great fraction of the ancient population called themselves "Earth people". This expression could be the source of the term "Red Men"! RE-DE in EMSL means the-Earth. When you combine this idea with the use of red ochre or other blood-simulants at EMC ceremonies, you obtain a nice fit with archaeological findings.

The Word "Ma" for the female Earth-goddess

The word "Ma" for mother, woman, female, and the care-giving role is one of the most universal words of mankind. We don't know if the earliest Earth Goddess concept was called "Ma" as a principal name, but we suspect that the ancient Shaman incantations implored the Earth Goddess to continuously fulfill her role as the Great Mother. Women were considered agents of this "Ma".

We are not aware of any clearcut competition for the interpretation of M#-syllables in ancient names as anything but "Ma". "Mar-" as a reference to the sea and "Medi-" as a reference to middle are possibilities. The English word "Mother" is likely derived from the EMSL name MA-THE-(RA), meaning Mother-the-(Earth). The English word "mate" is likely a paleo-designation for "wife" and derives from the EMSL name MA-TE, meaning mother-the. As we inferred above, there is reason from Old Albanian9,10 to associate the imbedded suffix definite-article with many ancient words.

The Goddess "Demeter" of the ancient Greek world can be rendered by EMSL as DE-ME-TE-RA, meaning the-Mother-the-Earth or the-Mother-Earth. This name reminds us that "ma/mother", as in the frequently used modern name MA-RY, can be used as an adjectival noun. The modern Greek word "Dimitri" echos the ancient name "Demeter".

Another application of EMSL is the Biblical name "Adam", frequently interpreted to mean "the red Earth". The EMSL translation is A-DA-M(A), meaning God (dess)-the-Mother or the-Mother-Goddess. Ancient names acquired several related meanings. Thus "Adam" may have been a verbal synonym for "the red Earth", but there is certainly no linguistic clue for this so-called translation.

Typical common M#-names are autumnal, Damon, Dumas, Erma, family, gamete, madame, magi, maid, maiden, mani, Margo, Martha, mason, Matthew, McNamara, McNamee, mead, Megan, Melena, Micah, miss, myth, O'Madden, Putnam, Samantha, Simon, and Thomas.

Typical cultural M#-names are Alabama, Cambodia, Germani, Mabona, Mali, Malta, Manitoba, Maya, Mediterranean, Mexico, Michigan, Mississippi, Morocco, Mykenae, Mysia, Ocmulgee, Oklahoma, Roman, Samoa, Samos, Scamander, Siam, Somali, Thames, and Vietnam.

The Word "Wa" for the female Earth-goddess

The search for unknown EMSL God(dess)-words will last for many years. It is logical to include nature-related ideas, such as Air, Cloud, Constellation, Cyclone, Desert, Fire, Fog, Lake, Moon, Mountain, Ocean, Planet, River, Sky, Star, Storm, Tornado, Typhoon, Universe, Vapor, Water, Weather, Wind, etc, in the basic name-search. In practical terms, the obvious opportunities are 1) the W#/V#-words that fall under a rather vague Rule 2D, 2) the long list of G#-words that fall under Rule 2A, 3) the shorter list of P#-words that fall under Rule 3B, and 4) perhaps some individual Cultures that have broken into the long list of D#-words that fall under Rule 4A.

At this time we think that Rules 2A and 4A are rock solid in basic concept. The Rule 2D situation has ambiguities, but only with Rule 3B. Thus the major issue is to decide how to translate the W#/V#-words. Some of them could, in fact, be satisfactory as "father". The only serious alternative we have considered is "spirit/water/wind" or "Wa", meaning a Goddess-synonym similar to "Ge", "Ge", and "Ma".

Our initial study of W#/V#-words can be summarized as follows. Most W#-words are legitimate WA-goddess words including most UA-words. The V#-words are divided between WA-goddess references and FA/PA-god references. There is often no apparent context for choosing. The WA-goddess references are frequently associated with GA, and thus there is a Central Asian or Northern bias in the distribution of these names. FA/PA-god references are more related to RA/MA-goddess words, which are slightly more Semito-Indian or Southern in distribution. Europe appears to have more RA/MA-words from older times and more GA/WA-words from later times when the Indo-German/Celts migrated westward. Thus the apparent conflict is not so much a breakdown of the EMSL concept, but it could have resulted primarily from stratification and isolation of naming practices

The land interior origin of the Wa-goddess is apparent from the finding that the vast majority of the Wa body-of-water names are rivers and lakes and seldom seas and oceans. Many of the land references are islands, ports, and river towns. The meaning, time of first usage, and evolution of Wa is less clear. I sense that the meaning could include references to clouds, fluids, fog, haze, lava, rain, sky, smoke, swamp, vapor, water, wind, and perhaps the planet Venus.

A familiar Wa puzzle is the name of the Roman-goddess of fire Vesta or the-Ve. Is "fire" some form of "fluid"? Any ancient Greek or Roman school child could point out that "fire" was one of the four elements of nature and hence an aspect of the Earth (Goddess). Certainly this Goddess Vesta was unlikely to have had a basic name meaning the-Father. In this case we see that "Vesta" = "Westa" in meaning.

There is also a fascinating Biblical connection with the name of Eve or Havvah, the genealogical mother of the "People of the Book". She is often called "Life", which is a plausible alternative meaning for "Earth Mother". And since the "Serpent" or "Earth God" is the most prominent pagan bad guy in the Old Testament, we can be confident that it was the immemorial Earth Mother Religion that the Biblical writers believed to be the pervasive culture of the common people to be converted in the future. Now a great many of the WA-words contain the WA-GE or GE-WA/GWA/GUA word combinations. It is easy to understand that the GE-WA Goddess name (JI-VA in India) can be pronounced in EMSL by Rule 2A and 2D of Table I as HE-VA. It is my perception that the name Eve is a later-time pronunciation of Heva. This discussion is clarified to some extent by study of the ancient nature word "evening". I realize that most of this must be nonsense, but it is surely more fun than many linguistic dissertations.

The WA-goddess appears to be referenced as WA/VA/WA-GE/GE-WA/GUA. The GUA-element as in GUA-TE-MA-LA might be overlooked until one looks at the word AGUA (Spanish for "Water/Wasser/Voder") as an ancient Iberian word. The EMSL translation is A-GE-WA, meaning Water-(Earth)-Goddess. On the other hand WATER is rendered WA-TE-R(E), meaning The-Water-(of-the-Earth). Surely, you have recognized this agua/water connection all along!

Some typical W#-names are Iowa, Taiwan, Waddenzee (NeLd), wade, Wadi, Walla Walla (WA), Walloon, walrus, Wanda, wassail, Wawasee (IN), weasel, Weser (GR), west, wet, Wetar Is (Molc), whale, wharf, wind, wine, Windau/Venta (USSR), and Winyah Bay (SC).

The list of W#G names includes Milwaukee (WI), Oswego (NY), Owego (NY), Tewksbury (GB), Wabash (In), wahine (HI), wake, wash, Washita/Ouachita (US), Watauga (TN), Waukegan (IL), Waukesha (WI), week, Wei Ho River (Chn), Wessex (GB), Wexford (Ire), whiskey, Wichita (KS), -wick/wick- (GB), Winchester (GB), Winnebago (WI), Winnepeg (Can), Winnepesaukee (NH), Winnetka (IL), Winooski (VT), and Wisconsin.

Typical G#W#-names are Chowan (NC), Coweta (GA), Gowanda (NY), Gwadar (Baluch), Gweedore (Erie), Gwy/Wye (Wales), Gwydir (Austrl), Haw (NC), Hawaii, Hawea (NZ), Hawera (NZ), Hiawatha, Hiwassee, Kanawha (WV), Kawaihoa (HI), Kawaikini (Kauai), Kawartha (ONT), Kaweah (CA), Kennesaw, Keweenaw (MI), Kawhia (NZ), Kawi (Java), Kiowa, Mohawk, Ojibwa, Shawano/Shawnee, Shewa (Ethio), Shiawasee (MI), and Shweli (Burma).

Typical Gua-river names are Guachiria (Columbia), Guadalete (Spain), Guadiana (Spain & Portugal), Guadix (Spain), Guainía (NW SAm), Guanare (Venezeuela), Guaporé (WC SA), Guaritico (Venezeuela), and Guadalupe (Texas). Also Aguán (Hon) and Aquitaine (FR).

A few of the rare J#W# names are Java/Djawa, Javari River (SAm), Jelgava (Latv) and Jiva (India).

The Word "eN" for the male Earth-god

The earliest Earth God names appear to be Pa and variations on eN, namely En/In/On. We chose the eN-name to emphasize that this is the only example of an EMSL-name identified that has the vowel-first format. We have only preliminary knowledge of this subject, and thus an improved explanation is likely to follow.

Some of the more notable occurrences of the eN-name are the lands of India and Indonesia, the name of the Inca people of Peru, the country of Honduras, the name of the Sumerian God Enki (also Enkidu), and the city of Enkomi on Cyprus. Thus if you have reasons to think that "dia" means the-god and that "ca/ki/ko" means Ge, then it is reasonable to take the eN-name seriously, even though it offers the troublesome possibility that En could signify E-N(I). Vowelless N's are a definite problem for EMSL.

We found the Irish tribal name Ennis/Innis, which EMSL renders as EN-NI, meaning En-people. Then we noticed the Irish tribal name McEntee, which EMSL renders as Mc-EN-TE, kin-of-EN-the or kin-of-the-EN. We can add to these results the Germanic name Engel, which echos the tribal name "Angles" as in Anglo-Saxon. The worldwide notion of this god-name was completed by identifying the North American name for the Great Lake Ontario, the companion city name of Toronto, and the regional Indian tribal name Oneonta.

Hazlitt's Gazetteer15 provides some geographical memory of the En-god in the ancient Mediterranean region. Some En-names are Enchelei, Endor, Engeddi, Enira, Enna, Ennea, Ennemase, Enope, Enrogel, and Entella. Some In-names are Inata, Indigetes, Ingauni, Ingena, Inna, Inportu, Insani, Intercatia, Intibili, and Intuergi. Some On-names are Albion, Oeon, Oenion, Onchestus, and Onellana.

We find that this Earth-god name was less popular in later history. A possible explanation is that the Ge/En- names may have had Central Asian origins, while the Re/Ma/Pa-names may have had a more Middle Eastern/Indian genesis. In the merging of the two cultures, perhaps the En-name received less emphasis.

A possible source for this insight comes from the names for the Sumerians. The "Sumeri" name is alleged to be an Akkadian (East Semitic) name. The EMSL translation is SU-SU-ME-RI, meaning the-Mother-Earth. The Sumerians are said to have called themselves "Sagiga". The EMSL translation is SA-GI-GA, meaning the -Earth-Earth or perhaps the-Earth-Goddess. Thus the two names are nearly equal. This limited data does not prove that the Sagiga were Central Asians, but possibly they did come from a Ge-name using region.

Now the Ge- and Ra-/Ma-cultures did mix fairly thoroughly later in history. There are many occurrences of the GE-RE tribal name, notably the "Krite" or "Cretans". The names become quite mixed, but the Ge-people appear to have preferred the NA-GA, KA-NA, and PA-GA Earth-god names, while the Ra-people preferred PA-RA for the Earth God. The newly emerging La-people also chose to use the PA-LA name, presumably for the Father-Sun meaning and not for Father & Sun.

The Word "Pa" for the male Earth-god

Like the M#-name, the P#-name could very well have paleo-linguistic heritage. The concept of the Earth-god may have grown slowly and varied somewhat from location to location. The Earth-goddess was represented in human-form, animal-form, insect-form, and serpent-form. The Earth-god was represented nearly exclusively by symbol or in serpent-form.

Some kings probably became living Earth-gods with sworn duties to further the interests of the Earth Mother. The Earth-God or Serpent was associated with the worldwide attributes of protection, male fertility, and wisdom. As warrior requirements for leaders increased (due largely to world population increases), the mythical dragon image was developed,16 allowing the King and Earth God to be figuratively the King-of-Beasts.

Rule 3B of Table I indicates that EMSL considers B's, F's, P's, Ph's, many V's, and some W's to be indicative of the P#-word, meaning father. The vowel is contracted in many words like "Breton", "Frank", and "Prague".

Typical B#-names are abbey, abbot, Alabama, Arab, Babel, Babylon, Bantu, baron, bedouin, ben, Beotia, Bosnia, Butan, Butz, Caribe, Ebla, ebony, Gabon, Isabel, Mabona, McBane, McBee, Nabatean, Namibia, and Tibet.

Typical F#-names are Afghanistan, Africa, Burkino Faso, Fana, Fargo, Fausto, Finland, Florida, Fiona, Frank, Frisian, and Frederick.

Typical P#-names are Apache, Epona, Espaûa, Ethiopia, Padua, Pago Pago, Paiute, Papua, Paris, Parthia, Paul, Pee Dee River, peni, penis, peninsula, Persia, Peter, Po, Poland, python, Sparta, Stepanie, tepee, and Zapateca.

Typical Ph#-names are Phillip, Philistine, Phoenicia, Phocaea, Phyrigia, phallus, McPherson, and McPhail.

Two-syllable Names for the Earth-God or Serpent

As explained earlier in this section, the trend of history was to replace the eN-name with Naga and Kana names and the simple Pa-name with Pa-ga and Pa-ra names. This result is listed as Rule 6 of Table I. The cultural issues related to these developments will be discussed in later articles.

Typical Kana-names are Canada, China, Chna (Canaan), Cuna, Duncan, Ghana, Khan, and Shenandoah.

Typical Naga-names are Bing, Chattanooga, Donaghy, Frank, McConnaughy, Nagua, Nagy, Naugatuck, Roanoke, selena, snake, and Tanganika.

Typical Paga-names are Bactria, Basque, Fiji, pagan, Pago Pago, Phocaea, Phoenikia, and Spokane.

Typical Para-names are Al-Biruni, Brazil, Brittany, eber, Iberia, Paris, Parthia, Persia, and Sparta.

The Word "La" for the male Sun-god

It took some time to find the candidate Sun-god word La/L#, due to the cultural influence of Egypt, which uses the well known sound Ra. There is also the false notion that L to R and R to L shifts abound in ancient words. In any event, there exist many ancient L-containing words like Italy, Illyria, Illinois, Laconia, Lakota, and Libya with no apparent translation.

The initial clue comes from the Sun-names "Sol/Solar", which we take to be much older than "Sun/Sonne". If "So-" from above is a definite article, then "La" is our candidate. "So-ne" in EMSL would mean "the people" and is far off of the mark. We then looked at the Moon-name "Luna", which our culture takes to be feminine. If "na" means "consort of", then "Luna" means "Consort of Lu". Our limited knowledge of ancient religion often specifies that the Moon is the wife of the Sun, and further we read that "Lugh" is the name of an ancient Celtic Sun-God.

We are thus in a position to consider L#, where # is any vowel, to be the male Sun-god name (Rule 3C of Table I). This finding is tantamount to claiming that Western Civilization has forgotten that the Earth worshippers of ten or more millennia called the Sun-god by a simple L-word. If this reality ever sinks in, you will join me in asking if there are other simple God(dess) words that have been forgotten.

We can check this conclusion against the name of the Greek Sun-God "Helios". Ignoring the initial "H" and the Greek suffix "-os", the word strips down to eli. We can interpret eli as e-li/a-la, that is, god-sun. As with "Luna", we encounter with "eli" a reverse word order from our logical preference, but this appears to be a characteristic of many ancient names.

An important application of the "L#" name comes with the word "Apollo", which we know to be a Greek Sun-God name. The EMSL translation of "Apollo" is A-PO-LO or god-father-sun, which rearranges to father-sun-god. We suggest that the name "Apollo" was introduced later in history than "Helios" when the local Shamen wished to upgrade the prestige of the Sun-God relative to the Earth-God or Serpent.

Now lets double your trouble by testing your willingness to believe that the ancients used the letters P, B, F, and V interchangeably (see the section on "Pa" and Rule 3Bof Table I). I direct your attention to the god-words "El", "Baal", and "Beli". We may view the old Semitic god-name "El(i)" to be the same word as "Helios", that is, "Eli". If you have read Professor Gordon's book on the Greek and Hebrew Civilizations,17 there is nothing surprising about this claim, except possibly for the linguistic disguise. The EMSL translation of "Baal" is BA-A-L(I), meaning father-god-sun. The EMSL translation of "Beli" is BE-LI, meaning father-sun. Thus we see that many simple L-words, such as "Apollo", "El", "Baal", "Beli", have nearly identical meanings on the surface, that is, they recognize the Sun-God. What we should not ignore is the possibility that the local Tribes or Cultures held widely differing views of the significance of the Sun-God in their societies.

Based on these insights, we can translate "Italy" as I-TA-LY, god-the-sun or the-sun-god; "Hellas" (the correct name for Greece) as E-LA, god-sun or sun-god; "Lydia" as LY-DI-A, sun-the-god or the-sun-god; "Libya" as LI-BY-A, sun-father-god or father-sun-god; "Latini" as LA-TI-NI, sun-the-people or the-sun-people; "Hellenes" as E-LE-NE, god-sun-people or sun-god-people; "Laconia" as LA-GO-NI-A, sun-earth-people-gods or people-of-the-sun-and-earth-gods; "Illini" as I-LI-NI, god-sun-people or sun-god-people; and "Belize" as BE-LI-ZE, father-sun-the or the-father-sun.

In the case of the "Italy-Latini" and "Hellas-Hellenes" we find that geographical and tribal names often have the same root, namely the god(s)-names. For the use of Na and Ni, refer to the section on special words. It is generally expected from the pre-history literature that the Sun Worshipers were engaged in crop farming more so than other peoples.

Typical simple L#-names are blond, Bolton, Eliza, Ellis, Halo, Illios, Lee, Leoni, Lusitania, McLaine, McNelly, Palone, Shelby, Slaney, Stanley, Szaibel, and Thule.

Typical compound L#-names are Alabama, Albania, Belgae, Belirus, Blatnik, Latvia, legend, Ligurian, Lithuania, Lucina, Nepal, Philistine, Tallahasee, and Tzalaki

There was also a question of the meaning of the ancient Libyan word Dalla and its possible relation to the Arabic god-word Allah. Through EMSL we find that Dalla means "The Sun" and probably "The Leader" (the reverse word is Lada). We find also that the many double-letters in names have single letter meaning and should be changed to single letters for translation purposes.

The Words "U/A" for the male Sky-god

There appears to be some sort of problem with the concept of the god-word u/a, when it occurs as an isolated vowel (see the discussion above of Rule 1A of Table I). We introduced the problem with a discussion of the Iron Age Goddess Athena. Somehow "god" has obtained a consort, and it is not clear if she is the Earth Mother. This may be a religious issue localized to the Eastern Mediterranean region. From the point of view of ESML, "Anat", the Bronze Age and later Goddess of Anatolia and Phoenicia, is rendered as A-NA-T(E), meaning god-consort of-the or the-consort of-god. Thus linguistically "Athena" = "Anat". Somewhere in pre-history, we have experienced a conversion of the god-word a to a "male Sky-god" A, who also has a consort. Perhaps "A" = "Baal" is this case.

We see here the possibility that the old EMC was beginning to fragment. Prior to this concern we saw the old EMC as a widespread culture with few variations. We cannot argue that the principal gods developed at one time, and thus it is possible that the Earth Mother was the first to hold sway, then the Earth-God or Serpent, and finally the Sun-God. I have plans to write a paper showing some evidence in ancient art of a religious Trinity based on the symbols for these deities.2-5

EMC is presumably the origin of the many Trinities found in later religions. The three Gods of the original EMC were together for a long time, perhaps 6-8 millennia. There is evidence, particularly in the New World, that some EMC cultures preferred to combine the two male-gods into a single Sun-serpent-god. We can follow this development in some of the ancient art symbols. Surprisingly, the concept of Sky-god symbols has eluded us.

Let us now turn to the usage of the isolated vowel u. By comparison, we can see that the three Old World cities, Attica, Ithaca, and Utica, could be translated as god-the-Earth or the-Earth-god. Then there are words like Euphrate(s), Europe, Ufalla, Uganda, Umbria, Uruguay, Ute, Utopi(a), Uzbek, Yuchee, and Yukon, that appear to have the same u-god prefix as Utica.

The Greek Zeus God causes the study of EMC a major problem in the Iron Age period. The name "Zeu(s)" is rendered in EMSL as ZE-U, meaning the-(Sky) God. This two-syllable breakup appears more reasonable if you have encountered the surname "Uzes", where ZE and U are reversed and leave the EMSL translation unchanged. If we go to Norse Culture, we find the God "Tiu" (spelled variously), who is honored by the English name Tuesday. His EMSL name is TI-U, the-(Sky) God.

In the Roman culture, the "Zeu(s)" word shifts to a J-sound in the name Jupiter, which we interpret to be Zeu(s)-father. Jupiter, of course, now doubles as a Planetary God. The consort of Jupiter is Juno, which EMSL expects more correctly to be Juna, meaning Zeu(s)-consort of. Some linguistic harmony occurs with her second name "Lucina". This name is rendered LU-SI-NA by EMSL, meaning Sun-the-consort of or consort of-the-Sun, ie, the-Moon. I suppose we should praise this mixed bag for its creativity!

In light of the "Zeu(s)" word, do we have any difficulties with the U-words Sousa, Inuca, south, Ura, Saudi, Urdu, Deutsch, and Teutone? The "Teutone" word has been connected with the Norse TI-U. Further it is hinted that the Teutons may have immigrated from Greece, thus strengthening the Zeus-Tiu cultural connection. By writing Deutsch as DE-U-TS(E)-CH(E), we can drop the definite articles to obtain U-CH(E). Thus we obtain a possible Deutsch-Yuchee connection, which is feasible in the sense that some Yuchee people successfully migrated to North America. I think that the u-letter of Inuca, Ura, Saudi, Urdu are examples of (Rule 1A of Table I.

We have used this section to introduce a peculiarity of EMSL, namely the occurrence of Sky Gods in the Iron Age, as defined by (Rule 3D of Table I. Thus in pure EMC the O-word of (Rule 5C is the only exception to (Rule 1A, ie, that isolated vowels should be translated as the general "god(dess)" word.

The Use of Special Words

The most obvious special words in EMSL names are the n-words Ni and Na. Ni can be spelled Ne or perhaps Ny, and it alleged widely to mean "people" in the tribal sense. Na is very specific in sound and appears to mean "consort of" (see (Rule 5 of Table I). We have not attempted to classify the occasional No and Nu words.

The Special Word "Ni"

Some examples of Ni-words are Afghani, Allegheny, Britany, Cataloni, Deni, Feniki (Phoeniki), Gitani, Illini, Niagara, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Seneca, and Tyreni. Numerous tribal-type names contain a syllable ending with the letter n, suggesting that an i/e has been dropped from the older pronunciation. Some examples are Huron(i), Iran(i), Japan(i), Mandan(i), Pagan(i), and Sudan(i).

The Special Word "Na"

The Na-word is a specific interpretation of EMSL that could be in error in the sense that Na itself may be a God-word, perhaps even the name of the Earth-God. The fact that the Na-word is not observed in ancient names as an independent word, ie, combined with only non-God names like Ni and De/Te/Sa/Za, suggests that it is a modifier or adjective word.

Na is most frequently observed in the combinations Nage/Naga or Gena/Kana. The Naga/Kana names are common titles in history, eg, Naga Raja and Aga Khan. The usages taken collectively seem to imply the concepts of snake, serpent, king, and Earth-God. Thus we concluded that the likely interpretation of the word Na is "con-sort of (the Goddess) or various (Gods)".

An interesting use of the word Na occurs in the name Panama (Pa-Na-Ma). The EMSL translation of this name is "The father, the consort of the mother".

The Special Word "O"

One of the most significant findings for the foundation of the EMSL is a recognition of the meaning of the word O. There are several clues that the meaning of O is blood and kinship. Thus it is possible to encounter a tribe with a name like Otey, Oddi, Oma, Oge, Ogea or perhaps Ogeni, who will call themselves "The Blood(s)" as we translate it. The correct name of such a tribe should be "Blood of the Goddess", which in turn should be interpreted to say "Kin (Children) of the Goddess" and to mean "Followers of (Believers in) the Goddess".

The reader is no doubt aware of the frequent "O'-" prefix of Irish surnames (eg, O'Callahan, O'Lennon, and O'Madden), widely associated with the notion of grandson, but more accurately described by the word "kin" for kinship or so-called "blood relation". Some of the Slavic peoples use the patrinym suffix "-off/-ov/-ova", which like the Irish "Mac-/Mc-" is mistakenly attributed to the word "son". The Slavic patrinyn surely means "-ofa, kin of the father (named)". The "Mac-" prefix meaning is a lengthy story, but the result is something like "kin of the high (king), ie, of royal birth". I don't object to the common interpretation of "son", but scholars should note that "son" may be an "attribution of meaning" and not a "translation".

We started long ago with the word "Oklahoma". Mr Victor Kachur suggested that "okla" might represent an L to R shift from "okra" and thus "ochre". We have had discussions of the possible association of "redman", "red paint people", and red ochre usage in ancient burials with EMC. It thus would be reasonable to anticipate that the word "ochre" could be associated with EMSL words for "red" and "ceremonial Earth Mother blood".

Sometime later, the search for EMSL rules led to the conclusion that the word "ochre" could be a modern pronunciation of some version of the EMSL name Oge. Actually the original name could have been Ogera, meaning "blood of the Mother Earth", but we have neglected this form so far, because most of the ancient prefix words O, Oc, Ok, and Ock have no trace of an r sound.

The interpretation of the meaning of the word Oc/Og illustrates the vast difference between EMSL and the Key Language of John Philip Cohane.1 Cohane emphasizes the importance of the word "havoc", said to be an ancient European battle cry, as a major clue to prehistoric naming systems. Some branch of the Ishmaelites is alleged to have worshiped a Goddess "Hava" or "Eve" and an even more obscure God "Oc/Og", possibly leading to the modern word "hog".

Returning now to the word "Oklahoma", we see that it is the EMSL name OK-LA-(H)O-MA. This name shows us that the word Ocan modify the Goddess word Ma and possibly others. American Indian names like Omaha, Ogala, Oconee, Osage, and Ocala are now straightforward to interpret. Notice the position of the O-word in the surname Osika. Turning now to the Old World,15 we present the example names Oasis, Taoce, Orasa, Oche, Ocra, Odea, Olicana, Omani, Tionica, and Ora.


This paper is the third version on a rather complicated topic. The question of how many translation applications to give is challenging to resolve. The most important goal is to find and understand any additional EMSL Rules. We expect to locate additional special words and perhaps another God-name. Further understanding of the EMC will allow better explanations of the EMSL names. The basis for additional application papers based on EMSL insight is much clearer at this point than any serious revisions of the basic ESML model presented here. Perhaps there will emerge a constructive critic who is an actual expert on monosyllabic languages.

  1. John Philip Cohane, The Key, Crown Publishers, New York, 1969, 288p.
  2. JJ White, "Cuna Culture Has Bronze Age Symbolism from the Aegean and Near East Regions", Midwestern Epigraphic Journal 8, 13-18 (1994).
  3. JJ White, "Ohio's Tarlton Cross Mound Opened", The Ancient American, Vol 2, No. 11, 49-51 (1995
  4. JJ White, BH Moseley, JS Meyers, and R Beigh, "Pre-Historic Indian Pipe Has Old World Art", Midwestern Epigraphic Journal 9, 39-44 (1995)
  5. JJ White, "The Sun, the Serpent, and the Mother Goddess Worldwide", ISAC/ES Symposium, Co-lumbus, GA, November 23, 1996.
  6. JJ White and BH Moseley, "Burrows Cave: Fraud or Find of the Century?", The Ancient American, Vol 1, No. 2, 4-15 (1993).
  7. Brian M Fagan, Peoples of the Earth, 2nd Ed, Little, Brown, and Co., Boston, 1977, p 113. We are referring to the Azilian painted pebbles from Mas d'Azil, France.
  8. JJ White, "Gypsies: Strange Nomads from the Past", Midwestern Epigraphic Journal 10(2), 2p (1996).
  9. JJ White, "The Origin of the Word 'God': An Application of Ancient Albanian Spelling", Midwestern Epigraphic Journal 10(1), 34 (1996).
  10. See, eg, Z Mayani, The Etruscans Begin to Speak, tr P Evans, Simon & Shuster, New York, 1962.
  11. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, ed by Della Thompson, 9th ed, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995, p 33.
  12. JJ White, "Comments on the Goddess Names 'Mabona' and 'Epona'", Midwestern Epigraphic Journal 10(1), 58 (1996).
  13. JJ White, "Ancient Celtic Usage of EMSL: Donegal, Takhelne, and Related Names", Midwestern Epigraphic Journal 10(1), 73-74 (1996).
  14. E Partridge, Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English, Greenwich House, New York, 1983, p 174.
  15. W Hazlitt, The Classical Gazetteer: A Dictionary of Ancient Sites, Senate, London, 1995. FP 1851.
  16. JJ White, "A New Interpretation for the Ancient Word 'Dragon’", Midwestern Epigraphic Journal 10(1), 67-68 (1996).
  17. CH Gordon, The Common Background of Greek and Hebrew Civilizations, WW Norton, NY, 1965.

Rule Standard Letters and Translation Variations Allowed (# = any vowel)
A god (general reference)
A E, I, U; never O; ? = sometimes
Ge Earth (Mother) Goddess
G# Gh, K, Kh, J, Q, Ch, Sh, H? (can be silent), X?, [K(#)·S(T)#; can be Z], C? [Keltic or hard C, Latinized Greek K; can be S]


Re Earth (Mother) Goddess
R# Rh; the R to L shift is not anticipated.


Ma (Earth) Mother (Goddess)
M# Mh.


Wa Water/Wind/Spirit (Mother Goddess)
W# Wh?, V? ; ambiguous concept with P#.


eN Earth God (Goddess consort)
#n # - E, I, O, A?, U?.


Pa Earth God (Goddess consort)
(Sun God as a late comer?)
P# F, Ph, B, V?, can be W?.


La Sun God
late comer as a consort?)
L# Lh; the L to R shift is not anticipated.


U Sky Got (a late comer?)
U A; relatively specific and local.
De The (definite article word)
D# T#, Th#, Ts#, Tz#, S#, St#, Z#, Zd#, etc;
X# is ambiguous, can be Z#.


Ni People (tribal identifier)
Ni can be Ne or Ny; never Na


Na Consort of (modifier word)
Na very specific; No?, Nu?.


O Blood, kindship (originaly a modifier)
O Can be confusing, especially with H.


NaGa Serpent (Earth God, Goddess consort)
NaG# G - mostly G, K, C.


GaNa Serpent (Earth God, Goddess consort)
G#Na G - mostly K, Kh, G, Ch.


PaGa Serpent (Earth God, Goddess consort)
P#G# see P, G variations.


PaRa Serpent (Earth God, Goddess consort)
P#R# See P variations.


The order of mono-syllable words has little significance, especially with the De and Ni words.


Modern suffixes should be ignored (mostly Greek and Latin endings).


Final vowels and contractions over vowels should be restored before translation.


J is usually a G, Sh, or Z variant, but it can be a Y vowel.

© 1996 JJWIII